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— Ed Casey, CA
Pleasant Hill Grain Baking Glossary
Hard Wheat – Varieties of wheat which contain a high percentage of protein content. Hard wheat is ideal for making food such as bread, pasta, pizza and pancakes. Hard winter wheat’s protein content ranges between 10-12%. Hard spring wheat’s protein content ranges between 10-15%. Hard winter wheat grows predominately in the southwestern and mid-western prairie states whereas hard spring wheat will grow best in the Dakotas, Minnesota, and Montana. (See our.)
Headstock –The part of aincluding the in-feed assembly, feed screw, blade and cutting disk, and the housing for these parts.
Hertz (also Hz) – The frequency of oscillation of an alternating current (AC) electric power supply. U.S. electricity operates at 60 Hz (60 cycles per second.) Many other countries use 50 Hz power. Some devices can operate acceptably on either 50 or 60 Hz power (possibly with some variation of power/speed/heating temperature), while others, particularly devices depending on electronic control circuits, must be used only on the type of power (Hz rating) for which they were specifically designed. Power transformers can be used to step voltage up or down, but they cannot alter the power supply's oscillation frequency (Hertz).
High-Altitude Baking – The lower atmospheric pressure that exists at high altitude will greatly affect baking processes. Baking at about 3,500 feet and above is a more difficult task than baking at a lower altitude and requires adjustments for breads and cakes to turn out well. Oftentimes a higher oven temperature and increased dry ingredients are necessary. Since water boils at significantly lower temperatures than 212˚ F at high altitudes,are helpful for some types of cooking.
n. A fine-grained sharpening device for sharpening cutting blades.
v. To sharpen with such a device.
Hull, Husk –
n. The outer (pericarp) layer of grain. The hull is inedible and must be removed before grain is safe for human consumption.
v. To remove the hull of grain. (Also “dehull”.)
Hominy – (See Nixtamal.)
Honey – A natural sweetener produced by bees using nectar from flowers. (See our raw Cox Clover Honey.)
Hydration – In artisan bread baking, bakers refer to the “hydration” of bread dough. The crumb of bread is greatly affected by the percentage of hydration. The lower the percentage, the smaller the air bubbles and denser the crumb will be. Artisan bread is usually at least 60% hydrated. Typically, baguettes have 60% hydration, Italian loaves have 63-65% hydration, bagels have 56-58% hydration, and ciabatta have 72-74% hydration. (See our .)