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— Pat Perusse, MD
Pleasant Hill Grain Baking Glossary
Ear – A section of dough that rises and bakes out of a blooming area of a bread loaf.
Egg Wash – Either the egg white, egg yolk, or entire egg mixed with milk, water, cream or salt. This mixture is brushed atop breads and pastries before baking. The egg wash will give a nicely browned color and shininess to the baked product.
Electric Stand Mixer – (See Stand Mixer.)
Endosperm – The nutritive component within seeds encased in the pericarp derived from the embryo sac and eventually surrounded and absorbed by the embryo. The majority of a grain kernel (over 80% of the weight in a wheat kernel) is comprised of the endosperm.
White flour is made using only processed endosperm (processing strips the endosperm of most of its nutritional qualities). Because of this exclusive use of the endosperm white flour is left without the bran, middlings, wheat germ, and wheat germ oil from the grain.
Enriched Flour – (See White Flour.)
Enriched Dough – Yeast dough with a fat content of 20% or higher. Enrichments may include butter, buttermilk, yogurt, eggs, oil and/or sugar.
Enzyme – A simple protein or conjugated proteins produced by living organisms which begin nearly all the biochemical processes (such as digestion) within bodies and help provide energy. Metabolic, digestive, and food are the three different types of enzymes.
Bodies do produce their own enzymes, but the production slows down as we age so it’s good to keep them replenished through food or through enzyme supplement pills.
The more enzymes that are in food, the better, since the body will be less taxed to accomplish all biochemical processes on its own—less of the body’s enzyme reserve will be used.
Enzymes are destroyed by a wet heat of 118˚ F and a dry heat of 150˚ F.
Expeller Pressed – The pressing of raw food such as nuts, seeds and some vegetables to extract oil all in one step using a machine which applies high, continuous pressure. Roughly 75% of the oil is extracted through the expeller method, and the last 25% of oil as well as the solid material leftover is often useable in other ways, such as nut butters and pet food. To press a food, the raw materials are first placed between two metal plates, which are then pressed together tightly by a screw-type mechanism as the metal plates slowly rotate. Due to the friction caused from the expeller press, the hardest raw food (like hard nuts) may reach temperatures as high as 120° F. Expeller pressing compares to oil extraction using chemicals, usually hexane. Hexane is a harmful chemical to be exposed to as it’s known to cause nausea, headaches and even muscle deterioration. Although expeller pressed oil is more expensive than oil extracted using chemicals, many find the health benefits worth the cost. Part of the reason for the higher price is because of the necessary lower yield of oil when the use of chemicals is not implemented.