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Pleasant Hill Grain Baking Glossary
Degas – (See Punch Down.)
Desiccant – A substance (often packaged in the form of a packet) used to dehumidify a specific environment, such as a sealed product container.
Desem – (Pronounced DAY-sem) A Dutch word meaning leaven. A desem is a type of sourdough starter made using some type of whole grain flour. Desem bread is bread made from a desem starter; bread made from mature desem leavens are nutritious, have a good rise, and are robust in its flavor and aroma. Desem is similar to a levain, but made with whole grain flour instead of white flour.
Distill (distillation) – To purify or concentrate by a process of heating and condensation.
Dough – Dry ingredients including flour mixed together with liquid, such as water into a pasty/sticky mass. Dough may be shaped and baked into a wide variety of foods such as pizza dough, bread loaves, cookies, and pastries. Salt, sugar and eggs are common additions to dough recipes.
Dough Divider – A semi-flexible or stiff tool used for dividing dough into sections or scraping dough from countertops. Flexible dough dividers may also be used as a bowl scraper. A usual size for this tool is 6” x 3.5.” (See our dough dividers.)
Dough Enhancer – A mixture of dry ingredients such as milk whey, citric acid, lecithin, and corn starch to help bread dough rise better and have a softer texture. Dough enhancer also extends the shelf life of bread loaves. Some types include gluten while others are gluten-free. (See our dough enhancer.)
Dough Hook – A metal hook attachment for bread mixers used to knead bread. A dough hook moves even a large, heavy dough mass around the bowl quickly and efficiently.
Dough Scraper – (See Dough Divider.)
Duromatic – Trademark name for pressure cookers from Swiss maker Kuhn Rikon.
Durum Flour / Durhum Flour – Often used in pasta making, this grain flour made from durum wheat is high in protein content, but quite low in the type of gluten needed for bread to rise well. Since it lacks good gluten content for bread loaves this flour is usually mixed with other grain flours when used to make bread.
Durum Wheat / Durhum Wheat – A type of wheat with tetraploid chromosomes, rather than the hexaploid sets found in white or red wheat. Durum wheat is the hardest of all wheats and very strong, so it's an excellent choice for making pasta. Durum wheat is used to make semolina. (See our non-GMO durum wheat.)